The system of labeling products Kosher goes back at least 100 years in America. Jews who are strict about maintaining Jewish dietary laws need to know which products, both meat and non-meat, are fit for consumption. Kosher labeling is one major way to determine this.
There are about 300 Kosher certification agencies in the U.S. There are also a number of different Kosher labels.
Sound Vision spoke to Rabbi Moshe Elefant, executive rabbinical coordinator of the Orthodox Union (OU) based in Manhattan, New York to explain his organization’s Kosher labeling system.
Rabbi Elefant administers the OU’s worldwide Kosher programs. The OU maintains one of the strictest standards of Kosher as an Orthodox Jewish Organization, although they also serve non-Orthodox Jewish communities.
“We certify 4500 facilities in 68 countries around the world and every one of the 50 states in the United States,” he noted in a telephone interview with Sound Vision.
The OU has been doing Kosher labeling for the past 100 years in the US Their first client, Heinz ketchup, is still labeled by them.
The different Kosher labels
The OU’s Kosher label is indicated by their initials, but there are other Kosher agencies with different labels as well.
Some of these are: MK, OK (Organized Kashruth) and a star with the letter “K” in it.
The difference in Kosher labeling companies is explained by the fact that “a lot of local Jewish communities have their own rabbinical board,” says rabbi Elefant, which determine Kosher standards and have their own symbols.
These labels go not just on meat, but also on everyday items like cereal, for instance. For a product to gain the OU’s approval and label, not only does the product itself have to be Kosher, but all ingredients added to it, including flavors must pass the test of Kosher approval.
Difference in understanding of what is “Kosher”
One explanation for the difference in Kosher labels is that there are different views amongst rabbis about what exactly passes as fit for Jewish consumption and what does not.
“There are differences of opinion on the definition of Kosher law,” rabbi Elefant notes. “Every rabbi is entitled to interpret the law as he sees correct. Our job as rabbis is to take ancient law and adapt it to modern technology. Obviously when you’re doing that there are going to be differences of opinion.”
However, he adds that “many of us share the same (Kosher) standard” and emphasized that buyers of Kosher products are the ones who ultimately have to select food based on their understanding of Kosher.
“The consumer is to judge if the supervision on the product meets their level,” he says.
How to get Kosher certification for products through the OU
If a company wants Kosher certification from the OU, Rabbi Elefant explained that the process works in the following manner:
1. The company must apply to the OU for certification.
2. The OU examines if all of the ingredients used are Kosher. This means the following:
a. the product cannot mix meat and milk products (so for example, a cheeseburger cannot be Kosher).
b. anything that is animal derived in the product has to come from an animal that is slaughtered by a rabbi and also examined for any internal wounds.
c. if any part of the product is processed on equipment that also processes non-Kosher material, the product is automatically rendered non-Kosher.
d. anything pork related being present in the product automatically makes it non-Kosher.
3. The OU dispatches a rabbi to check out a company that has applied for certification. The OU tries to use one of its rabbis to do an initial inspection at the company’s facility which is really a feasibility study to determine how the OU can create a Kosher program at the company’s facility.
4. Once that program is established, a contract is signed whereby the company is now obligated to follow the Kosher standards.
5. A rabbi visits the plant on a periodic, unannounced basis to make sure that the company is maintaining Kosher standards. This unannounced visit can happen anywhere from twice a year to everyday. Some plants have full time rabbinical staff.
Kosher meat is much more complicated
Kosher meat on the other hand, is much more complex and the standards are stricter. It is important to note that Jews careful about Jewish dietary laws would not eat meat slaughtered by a non-Jew, even if it was slaughtered in the correct manner because “that’s what the rules say,” according to Rabbi Elefant.
The process of going from meat to Kosher meat entails the following:
Choosing the right type of animal
The following animals can never be considered Kosher: horse, pig, camel, lions, tiger.
Fish also gain a Kosher designation. All Kosher fish have fins and scales.
Choosing the right person to slaughter the animal
The animal has to be slaughtered in a prescribed manner by a rabbi who is trained in that craft . He is called a Shochet or the ritual slaughterer. He has to be a trained Jewish person.
Slaughtering the animal in the prescribed manner
The process of Kosher slaughter is the following:
First the animal is inspected for any internal wounds. If it has any, then it is not considered Kosher.
If there are no wounds, certain veins which are prohibited by Jewish dietary laws are removed. One example of this is the sciatic nerve, which is located around the thigh.
Once this is done, all blood in the animal is removed. It is forbidden to consume blood. This removal is done through a salting process. The animal is rinsed three times and salted twice.
After this process, the meat can be considered Kosher.
Is Kosher Halal
Often times Muslim consumers tend to assume ‘Kosher’ is similar to ‘Halal’. Although the slaughtering rituals of Jewish people resemble those of Muslims; kosher and halal are two different entities carrying a different meaning and spirit. Muslims, therefore, are provided with the following basic information about Kosher so they can exercise care in distinguishing halal from kosher.
Kashrut (in Hebrew) is the system of Jewish dietary laws. Kosher (kashur in Hebrew) means ‘fit, or proper for use’ according to Jewish law. Examples of kosher are: the meat of the ‘fore quarter*’ of the cattle slaughtered ritually, fruits, vegetables, all fish that have fins*, all wines*, all cheeses*, gelatin*.
The opposite of Kosher, as applied to food in Treif (in Yiddish), or trefah (in Hebrew) meaning ‘not suitable for use’, or ‘forbidden’. Trefah literally means ‘torn by a wild beast’ (Exodus 22:30). Examples of Trefah are: blood, swine, rabbit*, all shell fish*, wild birds such as wild hen*, wild duck*, and the birds of prey.
(*) These food items exhibit a marked difference between kosher and Halal as well as trefah and haram. The differences are explained elsewhere in this section.
Caution to Muslim Consumers:
Halal is a comprehensive Islamic term encompassing not only the matters of food and drink, but all other matters of daily life. Islam being the final and perfect way of life for humanity, it supersedes all the previously revealed religions including Christianity and Judaism. The rituals in all matters were perfected by God (al-Quran 5:3)
According to Islamic Jurisprudence, no one except God can change forbidden (Haram) things into lawful (halal) for vice-versa. It is forbidden for people to change the lawful (Halal) things into unlawful (Haram), or vice-versa.
Halal is a unique Islamic concept and eating zabiha (Islamically slaughtered) meat is a distinguishing part of a Muslim’s identity as expressed by Prophet Muhammad, peace and blessings be upon him.
Salient differences between kosher and halal are:
Islam prohibits all intoxicating alcohols, liquors, wines and drugs. kashrut regards all wines kosher. Hence food items and drinks showing the kosher symbol containing alcohol are not halal.
Gelatin is considered Kosher by many Jews regardless of its source of origin. If the gelatin is prepared from non-zabiha, Muslims consider it haram (prohibited). Hence foods items such as marshmallows, yogurt, etc., showing kosher symbols are not always halal.
Enzymes (irrespective of their sources even from non-kosher animals) in cheese making are considered mere secretion(pirsah b’almah) according to some kashrut organizations, hence all cheeses are considered kosher. Muslims look for the source of the enzyme in cheese making. If it is coming from the swine, it is considered haram(forbidden). Hence cheeses showing kosher symbols may not be halal.
Jews do not pronounce the name of God on each animal while slaughtering. They feel that uttering the name of God, out of context, is wasteful. Muslims on the other hand pronounce the name of Allah on all animals while slaughtering.
The salient differences between kosher and halal have been illustrated so that Muslim consumers can distinguish halal from kosher.
Muslims in non-Muslim countries should strive to follow the Islamic injunctions in their diet (as well as in every walk of life) and establish their own businesses and institutions to cater to the needs of the Muslim Ummah. By doing so, not only the identity of the Muslims will be preserved, but they will be recognized and respected for their beliefs and practices.
Differences within Kosher:
There are different sects within Judaism and there are several hundred Jewish Kosher authorities in the US who certify Kosher based on extremely liberal to extremely conservative rules. Therefore it is difficult to come up with one uniform opinion regarding Kosher practices. A symbols “k” for kosher is not governed by any authority. Any manufacturer can use it at will. A website guiding Jews about Kosher states “it may take a great deal of detective work to ascertain the standard that a particular rabbi is using.” For this reason many Muslims when buying anything kosher look for “u” in a circle which are more conservative Kosher symbol.